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Water Hardness in North Dakota Cities

Water hardness refers to the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water, and this characteristic can vary significantly across different parts of the United States. Each region may encounter distinct levels of water hardness due to its unique geological and environmental conditions.

In North Dakota, water hardness can range from moderate to very hard, depending mainly on the geological composition of the area and the sources of its water supply. North Dakota’s landscape, which includes extensive agricultural land, and reliance on both surface water and groundwater contribute to the state’s water hardness. The variation in water hardness is noticeable not just from region to region within the state but can also evolve in a particular area over time due to changes in water treatment practices and shifts in water resources. This variation in hardness levels influences several factors, including the taste of the water. It can also impact the effectiveness of soaps and detergents, posing challenges for both households and industries in managing water quality and equipment efficiency.

The water hardness levels in North Dakota display a significant range across various cities, with measurements expressed in parts per million (ppm) and grains per gallon (gpg). Cities like Fargo and West Fargo present moderate hardness levels at 132.0ppm, 7.7gpg, and 132.0ppm, 7.7gpg, respectively. In contrast, Bottineau shows an exceptionally high level at 807.0ppm and 47.1gpg, which is quite disparate from the other cities. Other areas, such as Dickinson and Hettinger, possess hardness levels on the higher side, with concentrations reaching 155.0ppm, 9.1 gpg. Interestingly, some cities like Casselton, Mayville, and Hillsboro have much softer water, with levels as low as 41.2ppm, 2.4gpg, and 37.0ppm, 2.2gpg, respectively. However, several cities, including Grand Forks, Williston, Mandan, and others, did not have available data regarding their water hardness.

CityHardness ppm (mg/L)Hardness gpgInformation SourceNotes
Grand Forksn/an/aLinkAlkalinity only
West Fargo132.07.7LinkPurchases from Fargo
Willistonn/an/aLink(Reports at the bottom of linked page) Report mentions they soften the water, but don’t quantify
Dickinson155.09.1LinkReport says they soften the water, but doesn’t list final hardness ppm, only alkalinity. Mott purchases water from Dickinson’s softening plant and does list hardness so used that number.
Mandann/an/aLinkAlkalinity only
Wahpetonn/an/aLinkReport says they soften the water, but doesn’t list final hardness ppm.
Devils Lake118.16.9Link
Valley Cityn/an/aLink
Watford Cityn/an/aLinkPurchases from Williston
Lincoln133.07.8LinkPurchases from Bismarck
New Townn/an/aLink
Rugbyn/an/aLinkSay they lime soften the water, but don’t provide hardness ppm
Casselton41.22.4LinkPurchases from Cass Rural Water District, listed as just Calcium
Stanleyn/an/aLinkHasn’t been published online per alert on website
Hazenn/an/aLinkAlkalinity only
Bottineau807.047.1LinkLists only high value
Tiogan/an/aLinkR&T Water Supply Commerce Authority and Williston water blended
Langdon118.16.9LinkPurchases from Devils Lake
Mayville37.02.2LinkPurchases from Hillsboro
Harveyn/an/aLinkNo dedicated webpage to the water department, no online CCR, but appears their treatment plant uses membrane softening.
Park Rivern/an/aLink
Mapleton83.24.9LinkAs Calcium
New Rockfordn/an/aLink
Surrey156.09.0LinkPurchases from Minot
Washburnn/an/aLinkAlkalinity only
Burlington156.09.0LinkGets water from Minot. Used 2021 report as 2022 report isn’t uploaded in full
Cavaliern/an/aLinkNorthEast Regional Water District North Valley Branch Icelandic Aquifer
Cando118.16.9LinkPurchases from Devils Lake
Crosbyn/an/aLinkWater CCR is paywalled. Doesn’t appear to be posted on municipal website
Lintonn/an/aLinkAlkalinity Only
Hettinger155.09.1LinkSouthwest Water Authority, softened in Dickinson, this report doesn’t list hardness for water softened in Dickinson, but Mott does
New Salemn/an/aLinkGets from Mandan, which only reports Alkalinity
Beachn/an/aLinkAlkalinity Only
Belfield155.09.1LinkSouthwest Water Authority, softened in Dickinson, this report doesn’t list hardness for water softened in Dickinson, but Mott does
Gwinnern/an/aLinkReport says they filter for hardness
Kindred41.22.4LinkPurchases from Cass Rural Water, used the Calcium number from Casselton
Kenmare156.09.0LinkPurchases from Minot
Killdeern/an/aLinkSouthwest Water Authority — Oliver, Mercer, North Dunn
Walhallan/an/aLinkPurchases from Northeast RWD — North Valley Branch, same as Cavalier
Parshalln/an/aLinkRes city, might be exempt from CCR. Didn’t find on CCR search on EPA site, and city webpage doesn’t have info on utilities
Reile’s Acres41.22.4LinkPurchases from Cass Rural Water, used the calcium number from Casselton
Hebron155.09.1LinkSouthwest Water Authority, softened in Dickinson, this report doesn’t list hardness for water softened in Dickinson, but Mott does
Underwoodn/an/aLinkAlkalinity only
LaMoure133.07.8LinkPurchases from Lisbon
Draytonn/an/aLinkWebsite bandwidth exceeded, couldn’t find an alternate link to any CCR
Glen Ullin155.09.1LinkSouthwest Water Authority, softened in Dickinson, this report doesn’t list hardness for water softened in Dickinson, but Mott does
Wiltonn/an/aLinkSouth Central Regional, reports Alkalinity only
Hattonn/an/aLinkPurchases from East Central Regional Water District in Grand Forks which only reports alkalinity
Rayn/an/aLinkSays they soften the water, but don’t quantify a ppm
Mohall156.09.0LinkPurchases from Minot
New Englandn/an/aLinkSouthwest Water, but doesn’t specific where it’s treated.
Richardton155.09.1LinkSouthwest Water Authority, softened in Dickinson, this report doesn’t list hardness for water softened in Dickinson, but Mott does
Steelen/an/aLinkCCR at bottom of page, mentions they soften the water but don’t provide ppm
Mott155.09.1LinkSouthwest water, softened in Dickinson
Dunseithn/an/aLinkMost recent I could find was 2012, doesn’t report hardness
Minton/an/aLinkPurchases from Park River
Lidgerwoodn/an/aLinkDidn’t find a CCR for them on town website, possible they don’t have one, only a town of 600
Portlandn/an/aLinkPurchases from East Central Water District
Centern/an/aLinkAlkalinity only. Southwest Water
Turtle Laken/an/aLink
Elginn/an/aLinkUses Southwest Water — not certain which treatment plant they purchase from though.
Pembinan/an/aLinkNortheast Rural Water District North Valley Branch
Roletten/an/aLinkCity website is offline, town only has 484 people so might not have a CCR
Argusville41.22.4LinkPurchases from Cass Rural Water, which reports as Calcium on the Casselton CCR.
Berthold156.09.0LinkPurchases from Minot
Townern/an/aLinkOnly found Facebook page, with a link that leads to a dispensary webpage. Only a town of 500 people.
Fessenden132.57.7LinkAs Calcium
Emeradon/an/aLinkPurchases from East Central Regional Water
Wyndmeren/an/aLinkSoutheast Water Users District
Leedsn/an/aLinkScroll to bottom of this page for CCR
Top 100 North Dakota cities by population and their reported water hardness
ppm = Parts Per Million
mg/L = Milligrams Per Liter
gpg = Grains Per Gallon

Hard water can cause issues such as mineral buildup in plumbing and appliances, reduce the efficacy of soaps and detergents, and affect the taste of the water. A tried and true solution is the use of a water softener. A water softener, like the ones from DROP, could be a worthwhile investment.

These devices work by replacing the calcium and magnesium ions that cause hardness with sodium ions, resulting in softer water. With innovative features, easy installation, and efficient operation, DROP smart water softeners provide a solution to hard water issues, extending the lifespan of appliances, improving water taste, enhancing soap effectiveness, reducing scale build-up, and increasing the overall water efficiency in your home.

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