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Water Hardness in South Dakota Cities

Water hardness is determined by the concentration of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water, and this characteristic can greatly differ across the United States, influenced by the specific geological and environmental conditions of each region.

In South Dakota, the range of water hardness can vary from moderate to very hard, depending largely on the geological makeup of the region and the sources of its water supply. South Dakota’s terrain, which encompasses vast agricultural areas, combined with its dependence on both surface water and groundwater, plays a significant role in determining the state’s water hardness levels. Within South Dakota, the degree of water hardness can vary noticeably from one area to another and may also change over time in a specific locale due to alterations in water treatment methods and shifts in water sources. These fluctuations in hardness can affect various aspects, including the water’s taste. Additionally, it can influence the performance of soaps and detergents, presenting challenges for households and industries alike in terms of maintaining water quality and ensuring the efficiency of equipment.

The water hardness levels in South Dakota show variability across different cities, with measurements indicated in parts per million (ppm) and grains per gallon (gpg). Sioux Falls exhibits a notably high hardness level at 248.21ppm or 14.50gpg. Similarly, cities like Mitchell and Springfield, alongside Parkston and Freeman, report a high hardness at 299.57ppm, equating to 17.50gpg. Watertown’s water hardness is somewhat lower but still significant at 225.00ppm or 13.00gpg. On the other end of the spectrum, Tea and Lennox have more moderate levels of hardness, both at 160ppm or 9gpg. Milbank stands out for its exceptionally high water hardness, recorded at 650.48ppm or 38.00gpg, marking it as an outlier in terms of water hardness in the state. Conversely, several cities, including Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, and many others, did not have available data on their water hardness.

CityHardness ppm (mg/L)Hardness gpgInformation SourceNotes
Sioux Falls248.2114.50Link
Rapid Cityn/an/aLink
Aberdeenn/an/aLink
Brookingsn/an/aLink
Watertown225.0013.00Link
Mitchell299.5717.50LinkBon Homme Yankton Rural Water System
Yanktonn/an/aLinkSeems to be separate from Bon Homme Yankton Water
Huronn/an/aLinkMid Dakota Rural Water System
Pierren/an/aLink
Spearfishn/an/aLink
Box Eldern/an/aLink
Vermillionn/an/aLink
Brandonn/an/aLink
Harrisburgn/an/aLink
Sturgisn/an/aLink
Tea1609LinkLewis and Clark Regional Water System
Madisonn/an/aLinkLocal wells plus Big Sioux Community Water System
Belle Fourchen/an/aLink
Dell Rapidsn/an/aLink
Hot Springsn/an/aLink
Milbank650.4838.00Link
Hartford19011LinkPurchases 100% from Minnehaha Community Water Corp
Mobridgen/an/aLink
Cantonn/an/aLink
Summersetn/an/aLinkBlack Hawk Water User District
North Sioux Cityn/an/aLink
Leadn/an/aLinkDon’t appear to have an online CCR
Winnern/an/aLink
Chamberlainn/an/aLinkOnly has partial CCR online (at bottom of linked page)
Sissetonn/an/aLinkBDM Rural Water
Lennox1609LinkLewis and Clark Regional Water System
Flandreaun/an/aLinkBig Sioux Community Water
Redfieldn/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Fort Pierren/an/aLink
Volgan/an/aLink
Beresfordn/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Elk Pointn/an/aLinkNo CCR on city website it appears
Springfield299.5717.50LinkPart of Bon Homme County, same as Parkstonm which purchases from Bon Homme-Yankton
Custern/an/aLink
Webstern/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Parkston299.5717.50LinkPurchases from Bon Homme-Yankton Rural Water System
Wagnern/an/aLinkRandall Community Water District
Grotonn/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Crooks19011LinkPurchases 100% from Minnehaha Community Water Corp
Salemn/an/aLink
Freeman299.5717.50LinkPurchases from Bon Homme-Yanktown Rural Water System
Millern/an/aLinkMid Dakota Rural Water System
Platten/an/aLinkRandall Community Water District
Baltic19011LinkPurchases 100% from Minnehaha Community Water Corp
Eagle Butten/an/aLinkMni Waste’ Rural Water
Brittonn/an/aLinkBrown-Day-Marshall RWS
Parkern/an/aLinkTM Rural Water, mentions they soften the water at the treatment plant but doesn’t give ppm/gpg
Garretson19011LinkMinnehaha Community Water Group
Deadwoodn/an/aLinkLead-Deadwood Sanitary District
Clear Laken/an/aLinkBrookings Deuel Rural Water System
Gregoryn/an/aLink
Lemmonn/an/aLinkPerkins County, purchases all water from North Dakota but doesn’t specify system
Missionn/an/aLinkPart of Mission Hill-Yankton per EPA lookup. Not sure if it’s the same as Bon Homme-Yankton
Clarkn/an/aLinkPurchases from Clark Rural Water
Gettysburgn/an/aLinkMid Dakota Rural Water
Auroran/an/aLinkPart of Aurora-Bruel Water System
De Smetn/an/aLink
Tyndall299.5717.50LinkBon Homme-Yankton Water District
Piedmontn/an/aLinkBlack Hawk Water User District
Martinn/an/aLink
Ipswichn/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Worthingn/an/aLinkSouth Lincoln Rural Water System
Centerville1609LinkLewis and Clark Regional Water System
Hill Cityn/an/aLink
Arlingtonn/an/aLinkKingbrook Rural Water System
Whitewoodn/an/aLink
Valley Springsn/an/aLink
Howardn/an/aLinkKingbrook Rural Water System
Marionn/an/aLinkTM Rural Water, mentions they soften the water at the treatment plant but doesn’t give ppm/gpg
Faulktonn/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Eurekan/an/aLinkWEB Water Development Association
Viborgn/an/aLinkTM Rural Water, mentions they soften the water at the treatment plant but doesn’t give ppm/gpg
Alcestern/an/aLinkSouth Lincoln Rural Water System
Estellinen/an/aLink
Wessington Springsn/an/aLink
Plankintonn/an/aLinkAurora-Brule Rural Water System
Scotland299.5717.50LinkBon Homme-Yankton Water District
Edgemontn/an/aLink
Elktonn/an/aLinkBrookings Deuel Water System
Woonsocketn/an/aLink
Philipn/an/aLinkWest River Lyman Jones Rural Water
Colton19011LinkMinnehaha Community Water
Walln/an/aLink
Armourn/an/aLinkRandall Community Water District
Lake Andesn/an/aLinkRandall Community Water District, per EPA lookup
Castlewoodn/an/aLink
Onidan/an/aLinkMid Dakota Rural Water
Selbyn/an/aLinkPart of WEB Water, per linked article
Highmoren/an/aLinkMid Dakota Rural Water
Canistotan/an/aLinkTM Rural Water, mentions they soften the water at the treatment plant but doesn’t give ppm/gpg
Colmann/an/aLinkBig Sioux Water System
Menno299.5717.50LinkBon Homme Yankton RWS
Lake Nordenn/an/aLink
Alexandria299.5717.50LinkHanson Rural Water System
New Underwoodn/an/aLink
Top 100 South Dakota cities by population and their reported water hardness
ppm = Parts Per Million
mg/L = Milligrams Per Liter
gpg = Grains Per Gallon

Hard water can cause issues such as mineral buildup in plumbing and appliances, reduce the efficacy of soaps and detergents, and affect the taste of the water. A tried and true solution is the use of a water softener. A water softener, like the ones from DROP, could be a worthwhile investment.

These devices work by replacing the calcium and magnesium ions that cause hardness with sodium ions, resulting in softer water. With innovative features, easy installation, and efficient operation, DROP smart water softeners provide a solution to hard water issues, extending the lifespan of appliances, improving water taste, enhancing soap effectiveness, reducing scale build-up, and increasing the overall water efficiency in your home.

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