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Water Hardness in Wisconsin Cities

Water hardness in Wisconsin, characterized by the amount of dissolved minerals such as calcium and magnesium, can considerably vary throughout the state due to its diverse geological landscapes. Positioned in the Midwestern region of the U.S., Wisconsin’s water hardness levels reflect its range of geological features.

Across Wisconsin, water hardness can span from moderately soft to notably hard, contingent on the geology of the area and the source of the water supply. For example, areas situated over the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer may have softer water, attributed to the rapid movement of water through less mineral-rich sediments. Conversely, regions with harder water usually lie underneath limestone and other mineral-laden formations like those found in the Niagara Escarpment, leading to greater concentrations of dissolved minerals.

The variation in water hardness throughout Wisconsin influences not only the taste and aesthetics of the water but also the efficiency of soaps and detergents, plumbing maintenance, and the durability of appliances that use water. Given the state’s significant geological diversity, water hardness is not uniform, emphasizing the need for localized water treatment solutions and continuous monitoring of water quality.

Upon reviewing the data, it’s evident that water hardness levels vary greatly in different cities across Wisconsin, USA. Specific data isn’t available for most locations. Among the cities for which data is reported, the highest water hardness level is seen in Germantown, Hartland, and Grafton with a hardness ppm of 393.7 and a hardness gpg of 23.0. In contrast, the city with the lowest recorded water hardness level is Fox Crossing, reporting a hardness ppm of 35.0 and a hardness gpg of 2.0.

CityHardness ppm (mg/L)Hardness gpgInformation SourceNotes
Milwaukee130.07.6LinkDoesn’t report hardness, but sells to West Allis which reports hardness
Madisonn/an/aLink
Green Bayn/an/aLink
Kenosha137.08.0Link
Racine1408.2LinkLake Michigan
Appletonn/an/aLink
Waukeshan/an/aLink
Eau Clairen/an/aLink
Oshkoshn/an/aLink
Janesvillen/an/aLink
West Allis130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
La Crossen/an/aLink
Sheboygan146.08.5Link
Wauwatosa130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Fond du Lacn/an/aLink
Brookfieldn/an/aLink
New Berlin130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Wausaun/an/aLink
Menomonee Falls130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Greenfield130.07.6LinkCovered by Milwaukee
Franklinn/an/aLink
Beloit340.019.9Link
Oak Creekn/an/aLinkLake Michigan
Sun Prairien/an/aLink
Manitowocn/an/aLink
West Bendn/an/aLink
Fitchburgn/an/aLink
Mount Pleasant1408.2LinkGets from Racine
Neenahn/an/aLink
Superiorn/an/aLinkLake Superior
Stevens Pointn/an/aLink
De Peren/an/aLink
Muskegon/an/aLink
Caledonia1408.2LinkPurchases from Racine
Mequon130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Watertownn/an/aLink
Middletonn/an/aLink
Pleasant Prairie137.08.0LinkPurchases from Kenosha
Germantown393.723.0Link
South Milwaukeen/an/aLinkLAke Michigan, but separate facility from Milwaukee. Doesn’t report hardness but likely in the 130s range based on Milwaukee and Kenosha reports
Howardn/an/aLinkPurchases some from Lake Michigan, but doesn’t indicate how much
Fox Crossing35.02.0Link
Onalaska376.622.0Link
Marshfieldn/an/aLink
Wisconsin Rapidsn/an/aLink
Oconomowoc317.018.5Link
Menashan/an/aLink
Cudahyn/an/aLinkLake Michigan
Kaukaunan/an/aLink
Ashwaubenonn/an/aLinkPurchases from Green Bay
Menomonien/an/aLink
Beaver Damn/an/aLink
River Fallsn/an/aLink
Bellevuen/an/aLinkPurchases from Manitowoc
Pewaukeen/an/aLink
Hartfordn/an/aLink
Westonn/an/aLink
Hudson210.012.5Link
Waunakeen/an/aLink
Chippewa Fallsn/an/aLink
Whitefish Bayn/an/aLink
Greendale130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Salem Lakesn/an/aLinkNo online CCR, may purchase from Kenosha but isn’t clear
Whitewatern/an/aLink
Veronan/an/aLink
Allouezn/an/aLinkPurchases from Manitowoc
Plovern/an/aLink
Shorewoodn/an/aLink
Harrisonn/an/aLinkPurchases from Appleton
Glendalen/an/aLink
Stoughton308.118.0Link
Suamicon/an/aLink
Brown Deer130.07.6LinkPurchases from Milwaukee
Port Washingtonn/an/aLinkLake Michigan
Fort Atkinsonn/an/aLink
Cedarburgn/an/aLink
Baraboo248.014.5LinkTook system average
Grafton376.622.0Link
Little Chuten/an/aLink
Richfieldn/an/aLinkLooks like Richfield uses mostly private wells, per CCR lookup on EPA website
Plattevillen/an/aLink
Sussexn/an/aLink
Waupun85.65.0LinkTreated down to 5 gpg by city
Oregon331.018.3Link
Two Riversn/an/aLink
Marinetten/an/aLinkLake Michigan
Burlingtonn/an/aLink
Holmenn/an/aLink
DeForestn/an/aLink
Monroen/an/aLink
Hobartn/an/aLinkPurchases from Green Bay
New Richmondn/an/aLink
Elkhornn/an/aLink
Portagen/an/aLink
Reedsburg160.09.3Link
Spartan/an/aLink
Sturgeon Bayn/an/aLink
Hartland393.723.0Link
Tomahn/an/aLink
St. Francisn/an/aLinkNo online CCR, but probably covered by Milwaukee, based on Google Maps.
Top 100 Wisconsin cities by population and their reported water hardness
ppm = Parts Per Million
mg/L = Milligrams Per Liter
gpg = Grains Per Gallon

Hard water can cause issues such as mineral buildup in plumbing and appliances, reduce the efficacy of soaps and detergents, and affect the taste of the water. A tried and true solution is the use of a water softener. A water softener, like the ones from DROP, could be a worthwhile investment.

These devices work by replacing the calcium and magnesium ions that cause hardness with sodium ions, resulting in softer water. With innovative features, easy installation, and efficient operation, DROP smart water softeners provide a solution to hard water issues, extending the lifespan of appliances, improving water taste, enhancing soap effectiveness, reducing scale build-up, and increasing the overall water efficiency in your home.

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